A diagnostic and programming tool for USAID missions to understand and assess Land Tenure and Property Rights (LTPR) issues in their respective countries and determine how these issues contribute to or impede realization of strategic objectives. The tool guides LTPR professionals and USAID missions in identifying appropriate interventions to improve LTPR situations and in prioritizing and ordering interventions to enhance their effectiveness. It also facilitates development of a system to monitor and evaluate the performance of interventions.
Analytical tools to identify and integrate land tenure considerations into USAID programming.
This matrix condenses the range of tenure challenges to a manageable theoretical construct and offers illustrative programmatic interventions.
It consists of five categories of LTPR issues:
- violent conflict and post-conflict instability,
- unsustainable NRM and biodiversity loss,
- insecure tenure and property rights,
- inequitable access to land and natural resources, and
- poorly performing land markets.
and six categories of interventions:
- key institutional arrangements,
- conflict or dispute resolution,
- legal and regulatory framework,
- redistribution of land or natural resources within society,
- land administration and the specific mechanisms and agencies used to implement land policy, and
- enabling and strengthening sustainable land-use management and conservation.
The matrix is not meant to be read sequentially from left to right, nor from top to bottom; rather, it serves as a menu of issues and interventions that need to be considered within the realm of land tenure and property rights. Individual cells of the matrix represent critical intersections between issues and interventions.
As land is a main factor for economic production in most countries where USAID operates, it is the main focus of the LTPR framework. For the most part, land tenure will refer to the ways in which individuals or groups acquire access to land, the rights they hold, and the ways they defend those rights. Most decisions made over land have a direct and often immediate impact on NRM and property rights.
The LTPR matrix is designed to visualize the categories of possible issues and interventions associated with land tenure and property rights. Here in Table 1, the LTPR matrix is populated to illustrate the possible range of LTPR interventions that could be employed in transitional development programming. The range of possible interventions is large but finite; not all possible interventions are noted here. Both the range of possible interventions and the sequence in which they are applied can have either a singular effect on an issue, or a multiplying effect on a number of LTPR issues/subissues.
Selecting from among the range of possibilities and understanding the sequence in which issues and interventions need to be addressed are critical to the practice of LTPR programming. Although there is no ideal sequencing of LTPR interventions, USAID is constantly learning lessons about how the sequencing of interventions can influence outputs and impacts associated with LTPR reforms.
A conceptual tool for examining land tenure and property rights categories, constraints and interventions in USAID development programming. This volume includes a glossary of commonly used land tenure and property rights terms.
The LTPR Impact Assessment Tool presented here targets USAID missions as well as LTPR and impact assessment professionals hired to carry out an assessment. It can easily be adapted for use by other US government (USG) agencies, or even other donors, engaged in programming of LTPR interventions.