Resource governance, tenure, and property rights—the complex institutions and rules determining the ownership and allocation of land and natural resources—will be stressed, destabilized, and forced to evolve in response to climate change impacts. In unpredictable ways, climate change will provoke adjustments in the value of land and other natural resources; simultaneously, climate change will intensify human migration and displacement. These forces have the potential to destabilize governance and property rights regimes, spur the evolution of both statutory and customary tenure arrangements, and open the door for powerful actors to expand their claims on land and other natural resources. Similarly, climate mitigation initiatives, such as carbon sequestration policies and programs, may profoundly alter institutions of governance and property rights. Integration of property rights and resource governance considerations into policies and programs will increase resilience to the impacts of climate change, and at the same time, foster mitigation activities.